The engine lathe is a basic machine tool that can be used for a variety of turning, facing, and drilling operations. It uses a single-point cutting tool for turning and boring. Turning operations involve cutting. Chip formation is part of the process of cutting materials by mechanical means, using tools such as saws, lathes and milling cutters. An understanding of the theory and engineering of this formation is an important part of the development of such machines and their cutting tools.
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Meaning of Cutting Tool:
A cutting tool in metal working can be defined as “any tool that is used to remove metal from the work piece by means of shear deformation”. Frequently, it also refers as a tool bit. In order to perform effective cutting operation, the cutting tool must be made of a material harder than the work material to be cut. Also, the tool must be able to withstand the heat generated during machining process.
The tool must have a specific geometry (known as tool geometry) for effective cutting and smooth surface finish. According to the tool geometry, the cutting tools can be classified into solid cutting tools and carbide tipped tools.
Types of Cutting Tools:
Various cutting operations require various types of cutting tools. To achieve good surface quality, proper cutting tool selection is very important.
Following are some important parameters to be considered while selecting a cutting tool for particular machining operation:
ii. Material to be machined.
iii. Shape and Size of part.
iv. Type of operation required.
v. Machine tool quality.
vi. Surface finish required.
vii. Holding facility.
viii. Machining parameters such as feed speed and depth of cut selected.
The various types of cutting tools are shown in Fig.
The major classifications of cutting tools are following:
(i) According to Construction:
(a) Solid tool.
(b) Carbide tipped tool.
(ii) According to Number of Cutting Edges:
(a) Single point tool.
(b) Multipoint tool.
(c) Formed (Tailor designed) tool.
(iii) According to Shape:
(c) Left hand.
(d) Right hand.
(e) Round nose.
(f) Straight nose.
(iv) According to Operations:
(v) According to Type of Cutting Tool Material:
Lathe Tool Sharpening
This section is from the book 'The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1', by Popular Mechanics Co.. Also available from Amazon: 700 Things for Boys to Do.
Lathe Cutting Tool Sharpening The Mechanic Near Me
When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases , never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. A pair of centers are fitted, one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel.
Illustration: Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes
All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6, 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3, 2 and 1 respectively.
In the sketch, A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. When the cutter A, which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe, has finished a cut for a tooth, the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel.
Lathe Tool Sharpening Jig
In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed.
The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe, or should the lathe head be raised, a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck, and adjusted to run true. The frame holding the mandrel, gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. In this manner gears 3 in. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. swing lathe. --Contributed by Samuel C. Bunker, Brooklyn, N. Y.
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