Contactdesign Water Supply System

Contactdesign Water Supply System

Online design tool for a water supply system

This application can be used to design Water Supply Systems.

Of water supply systems in order to understand how this can be accomplished. Chapter 2 presents a basic understanding of hydraulic fundamentals needed to accomplish water supply testing and evaluation accurately, and Chapter 3 presents water supply system evaluation methods for determining existing water. Water supply systems in the Netherlands; Bunn and Reynolds (2009) showed reductions of energy cost of 12% at water supply systems in the United States. A second possibility to improve the performance of water supply systems is the implementation of pressure management. In most cases, implementing pressure management includes both. The existing water supply system of the village was built 30 years ago with the problems of leaky pipes, mixing of sewerage water with drinking water was causing water-borne diseases like Diarrhea.

Contactdesign Water Supply System

Home Water Supply System Design

How to Use

  • Make a sketch of your system - something similar to the default sketch below. Custom drawings can be linked to the application - any global (http://..) or local (file://..) url should work
  • Tag the sections and add them to the hierarchical application structure below (modify or reset the default system)
  • Add input data - flow, preliminary dimensions, lengths, elevations, minor coefficients and so on for each section
  • Modify the dimensions to achieve reasonable values for velocities and pressure losses
  • Save the data file to your computer/network
  • dimensions, copper, pvc, pe
  • minor loss coefficients, viscosity, density, roughness

Related Topics

  • Water Systems - Hot and cold water service systems - design properties, capacities, sizing and more

Related Documents

  • ASTM B88 - Seamless Copper Water Tubes - Dimensions - Water and Gas Copper Tubes according ASTM B88 - type K, L and M - imperial units
  • ASTM D1785 and ASTM F441 - PVC and CPVC Pipes Schedule 40 & 80 - Standard dimensions and weight of PVC - Polyvinyl Chloride - and CPVC - Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride
  • ASTM D2846 - CPVC Plastic Hot and Cold Water Distribution Tubes - Dimensions - Dimensions of CTS - Copper Tube Sized CPVC (Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride) tubes
  • ASTM D3035 - Polyethylene PE pipes - dimensions - Dimensions of PE pipes based on controlled outside diameter
  • ASTM F876 - PEX Tube - Dimensions - Dimensions of PEX tubes
  • BS 2871 - Copper Tubes - Dimensions and Working Pressures Table X, Y and Z - Metric Sizes of copper tubes to BS (British Standard) 2871
  • BS 7291 - Thermoplastics pipes for hot and cold water - dimensions - Dimensions of thermoplastic pipes - PEX and PB according BS 7291
  • Cold Water Storage Capacity - Required cold water storage capacity - commonly used fixtures and types of buildings
  • Cold Water Storage per Occupant - Cold water storage for occupants in common types of buildings as factories, hospitals, houses and more
  • Copper Tubes - Maximum Water Velocity - Water velocity in a copper tube should not exceed certain limits to avoid erosion
  • Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss in Fittings and Valves Expressed as Equivalent Length of Tube - Copper tube fittings and equivalent lengths - in feets of straight tube
  • Copper Tubes Type K - Dimensions and Physical Characteristics - Physical characteristics of copper tubes according ASTM B 88 type K
  • CPVC Pipes - Hanger Spacing - Maximum distance between CPVC pipes supports
  • Cross-Contamination Control - It is fundamental to keep the potable water in the water supply systems uncontaminated
  • Design of Domestic Service Water Supply Systems - Introduction to general design of domestic service water supply systems - with pressurized or gravity tanks
  • Design of Hot Water Heating Systems - Gravity and Forced Heating Systems
  • Domestic Hot Water Service Systems - Design Procedure - Design procedure for domestic hot water service systems
  • Domestic Water Supply - Lime Deposits - Lime deposited vs. temperature and water consumption
  • EN 12201 - Polyethylene (PE) pipes for water supply, and for drainage and sewerage under pressure - dimensions - Dimensions of PE pipes according EN 12201
  • EN 1452 - Unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) - Dimensions - Dimensions of PVC-U pipe according EN 1452
  • Farm Livestock - Water Consumption - Farming and animal required water supply
  • Fittings and Minor Pressure Loss - Minor pressure loss for fittings in piping heating systems
  • Fixture Units - WSFU vs GPM and Liters/sec - Converting WSFU - Water Supply Fixture Units - to GPM
  • Fixture Water Requirements - Water outlets demand
  • Hazen-Williams Equation - calculating Head Loss in Water Pipes - Friction head loss (ftH2O per 100 ft pipe) in water pipes can be estimated with the empirical Hazen-Williams equation
  • Hoses - Water Flow and Pressure Losses - Water flow and pressure loss due to friction in hoses
  • Hot and Cold Water Pipe Sizing - Recommended dimensions of hot and cold water pipes
  • Hot Water Consumption per Occupant - Consumption of hot water per person or occupant
  • Hot Water Storage Tanks - Dimensions and Capacities - Dimensions and capacities of hot-water storage tanks
  • Hot Water Supply - Fixture Consumption - Design hot water consumption of fixtures - basins, showers, sinks and baths
  • Hot Water Supply - Flow Rates to Fixtures - Hot water consumption of some common equipment as basins, sinks, baths and showers
  • Identification Labels - Pipes and Equipment - Tags and label colors used for mechanical, plumbing and piping systems
  • ISO 4427 - PE Pipes for Water Supply - Dimensions - Polyethylene pipe dimensions according European Standards
  • Legionella - Legionella pneumophila - bacterium that thrives in water supply systems and air conditioning systems - causing the Legionnairs disease
  • Maximum Flow Velocities in Water Systems - Water velocities in pipes and tubes should not exceed certain limits
  • PE - PolyEthylene Pipes, Flow and Pressure Loss - Water flow in SDR pressure rated PE-pipes - pressure loss and velocities - Imperial and SI units
  • PE Pipes - Pressure Grades - Polyethylene - PE - pipes and pressure classes
  • PE Pipes - Pressure Ratings - Water pressure ratings for schedule 40 and schedule 80 Polyethylene plastic pipes
  • PE Pipes - Temperature and Pressure Ratings - PolyEthylene pipe - temperature and maximum operating pressure
  • PE Water Supply Pipes - Properties - Nominal pipe size, outside diameter, wall thickness, weight and working pressure
  • PE, PEH or PVC Pipes - Pressure Loss Diagram - Pressure drop (bar/100 m) and velocy in PE, PEH or PVC pipes
  • Plastic Pipes Operating Temperatures - ABS, PE, PVC, CPVC, PB, PP and SR - pressure and operating temperatures
  • Plumbing Codes - Plumbing or sanitation codes are a set of rules and regulations imposed by cities, counties or states
  • PVC Pipes - Pressure Ratings - Maximum operating and required burst pressure of PVC - Polyvinyl Chloride - pipe fittings
  • PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagrams - Friction loss (psi/100 ft) and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40
  • Sizing Domestic Hot Water Heaters - Domestic Hot-Water sizing equations - heating capacity, recovery rate and power supply
  • Sizing Water Supply Lines - Sizing water supply service and distribution lines based on Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU)
  • Water - Human Activity and Consumption - Activity and average water consumption
  • Water Discharge Volume Flow through a Hose - Water discharge through hoses - pressure ranging 10 - 200 psi (0.75 - 14 bar)
  • Water Distribution Pipes - Materials used in water distribution pipes
  • Water Flow in Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss due to Fricton - Water flow and pressure loss (psi/ft) due to friction in copper tubes ASTM B88 Types K, L and M
  • Water Flow in Tubes - Reynolds Number - Clean cold waterflow in pipes and the Reynolds number
  • Water Service Pipe Lines - Water service pipe lines extends from the potable water source to the interior of buildings
  • Water Supply - Calculating Demand - Calculating expected demand of water supply in service lines
  • Water Supply - Fixture Units WSFU - WSFU is used to calculate water supply service systems
  • Water Supply Pipe Lines - Sizing - Sizing of water supply pipe lines
  • Water Supply to Public Buildings - Required water supply to public buildings
  • Yard Fixtures - Water Consumption - Water consumption in garden fixtures

Tag Search

  • en: water supply system capacity dimensions design
Water supply system
  • Historical background
  • Water sources
    • Surface water and groundwater
  • Water requirements
    • Drinking-water quality
  • Water treatment
    • Clarification
    • Disinfection
    • Additional treatment
    • Desalination
  • Water distribution
    • Pipelines
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Join Britannica's Publishing Partner Program and our community of experts to gain a global audience for your work! Jerry A. Nathanson
Professor of Engineering, Union County College, Cranford, New Jersey. Author of Basic Environmental Technology: Water Supply, Waste Disposal, and Pollution Control.

Water supply system, infrastructure for the collection, transmission, treatment, storage, and distribution of water for homes, commercial establishments, industry, and irrigation, as well as for such public needs as firefighting and street flushing. Of all municipal services, provision of potable water is perhaps the most vital. People depend on water for drinking, cooking, washing, carrying away wastes, and other domestic needs. Water supply systems must also meet requirements for public, commercial, and industrial activities. In all cases, the water must fulfill both quality and quantity requirements.

Historical background

Developments in supply systems

Water was an important factor in the location of the earliest settled communities, and the evolution of public water supply systems is tied directly to the growth of cities. In the development of water resources beyond their natural condition in rivers, lakes, and springs, the digging of shallow wells was probably the earliest innovation. As the need for water increased and tools were developed, wells were made deeper. Brick-lined wells were built by city dwellers in the Indus River basin as early as 2500 bce, and wells almost 500 metres (more than 1,600 feet) deep are known to have been used in ancient China.

Water Supply Network Design

Construction of qanāts, slightly sloping tunnels driven into hillsides that contained groundwater, probably originated in ancient Persia about 700 bce. From the hillsides the water was conveyed by gravity in open channels to nearby towns or cities. The use of qanāts became widespread throughout the region, and some are still in existence. Until 1933 the Iranian capital city, Tehrān, drew its entire water supply from a system of qanāts.

The need to channel water supplies from distant sources was an outcome of the growth of urban communities. Among the most notable of ancient water-conveyance systems are the aqueducts built between 312 bce and 455 ce throughout the Roman Empire. Some of these impressive works are still in existence. The writings of Sextus Julius Frontinus (who was appointed superintendent of Roman aqueducts in 97 ce) provide information about the design and construction of the 11 major aqueducts that supplied Rome itself. Extending from a distant spring-fed area, a lake, or a river, a typical Roman aqueduct included a series of underground and aboveground channels. The longest was the Aqua Marcia, built in 144 bce. Its source was about 37 km (23 miles) from Rome. The aqueduct itself was 92 km (57 miles) long, however, because it had to meander along land contours in order to maintain a steady flow of water. For about 80 km (50 miles) the aqueduct was underground in a covered trench, and only for the last 11 km (7 miles) was it carried aboveground on an arcade. In fact, most of the combined length of the aqueducts supplying Rome (about 420 km [260 miles]) was built as covered trenches or tunnels. When crossing a valley, aqueducts were supported by arcades comprising one or more levels of massive granite piers and impressive arches.

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The aqueducts ended in Rome at distribution reservoirs, from which the water was conveyed to public baths or fountains. A few very wealthy or privileged citizens had water piped directly into their homes, but most of the people carried water in containers from a public fountain. Water was running constantly, the excess being used to clean the streets and flush the sewers.

Contactdesign Water Supply System

Ancient aqueducts and pipelines were not capable of withstanding much pressure. Channels were constructed of cut stone, brick, rubble, or rough concrete. Pipes were typically made of drilled stone or of hollowed wooden logs, although clay and lead pipes were also used. During the Middle Ages there was no notable progress in the methods or materials used to convey and distribute water.

Cast iron pipes with joints capable of withstanding high pressures were not used very much until the early 19th century. The steam engine was first applied to water-pumping operations at about that time, making it possible for all but the smallest communities to have drinking water supplied directly to individual homes. Asbestoscement, ductile iron, reinforced concrete, and steel came into use as materials for water supply pipelines in the 20th century.

Developments in water treatment

In addition to quantity of supply, water quality is also of concern. Even the ancients had an appreciation for the importance of water purity. Sanskrit writings from as early as 2000 bce tell how to purify foul water by boiling and filtering. But it was not until the middle of the 19th century that a direct link between polluted water and disease (cholera) was proved, and it was not until the end of that same century that the German bacteriologist Robert Koch proved the germ theory of disease, establishing a scientific basis for the treatment and sanitation of drinking water.

Water Supply Design Pdf

Water treatment is the alteration of a water source in order to achieve a quality that meets specified goals. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, the main goal was elimination of deadly waterborne diseases. The treatment of public drinking water to remove pathogenic, or disease-causing, microorganisms began about that time. Treatment methods included sand filtration as well as the use of chlorine for disinfection. The virtual elimination of diseases such as cholera and typhoid in developed countries proved the success of this water-treatment technology. In developing countries, waterborne disease is still the principal water quality concern.

In industrialized countries, concern has shifted to the chronic health effects related to chemical contamination. For example, trace amounts of certain synthetic organic substances in drinking water are suspected of causing cancer in humans. Lead in drinking water, usually leached from corroded lead pipes, can result in gradual lead poisoning and may cause developmental delays in children. The added goal of reducing such health risks is seen in the continually increasing number of factors included in drinking-water standards.

Water sources

Global distribution

Contact Design Water Supply Systems

Water is present in abundant quantities on and under Earth’s surface, but less than 1 percent of it is liquid fresh water. Most of Earth’s estimated 1.4 billion cubic km (326 million cubic miles) of water is in the oceans or frozen in polar ice caps and glaciers. Ocean water contains about 35 grams per litre (4.5 ounces per gallon) of dissolved minerals or salts, making it unfit for drinking and for most industrial or agricultural uses.

There is ample fresh water—water containing less than 3 grams of salts per litre, or less than one-eighth ounce of salts per gallon—to satisfy all human needs. It is not always available, though, at the times and places it is needed, and it is not uniformly distributed over the globe, sometimes resulting in water scarcity for susceptible communities. In many locations the availability of good-quality water is further reduced because of urban development, industrial growth, and environmental pollution.

Contactdesign water supply system

Water Supply Network Design Pdf

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